So far, bio-inspired energy conversion in solid-state nanofluidic devices has experienced three generations of evolution with the uptake of separate inspirations from biological ion channels, electric eels, and nacre. Here is an overview of the structural and functional evolution in synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanofluidic systems under the guidance of three different types of biological inspiration: the asymmetric ion-transport behaviors of biological ion channels, the strong bioelectric function of electric eels, and the layered microstructure of nacre.


Nanofluidic energy conversion inspired by biology

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